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Rudkhan Castle



Winter in Gilan

About Gilan




About Guilan :

Geographical location :

Guilan province with a total area of 14711 square kilometers is located between the Alborz mountains and Talesh in the Caspian beach and northern Iran. According to the last administrative and political divisions in 1375, Guilan’s cities are : Astara , Astane-Ashrafie , Bandar-e-Anzali , Rasht , Roudbar , Roudsar , Shaft , Sowme’he sara, Talesh , Fouman ,  Lahijan , Langroud. Rasht is the center of Guilan. Guilan province lies along the Caspian Sea, in Iran's Region 3, west of the province of Mazandaran, east of the province of Ardabil, and north of the provinces of Zanjan and Qazvin.It also borders the Republic of Azerbaijan in the north, as well as Russia across the Caspian Sea.

In 1375, The population of Guilan was about 2241896, which %83.46 of people lived in cities and %15.53 of them lived in  villages.Jaggedness of Guilan from west to east are : Talesh , Masoule , Poshte Kooh , Alborz mountain range which are composed of 3 parts of east west and center.Western Alborz surrounds guilan like a fence and the highest peak of it in Guilan is named Fok ( Dolfak ) ( Eagle’s nest ) .

Climate : Guilan has a humid subtropical climate.Talesh mountains with north-south direction and Alborz mountains with west-east direction prevent water vapor and wet waves of northwest from passing and they cause a lot of rain in Guilan because of high altitude.Extensive evaporation of the Caspian Sea raises moisture in summer and reduces it in winter. So winter frosting by the sea is low.  Rain showers in Guilan depend on wet winds which blow from northwest in winter, from east in spring, and from west in summer and autumn.

Agriculture  : Nature of Guilan with temperate climate, alluvial soils, abundant river, massive forests, ponds, sandy beaches and etc is the main driver of economic activity in Guilan.Agriculture is the most important indicator of economic activity in Guilan and Life and salaries of a large part of the province's population are provided through economic activities.Although the province of Guilan is generally known as a fertile land and suitable for agricultural activities, but conditions such as climate, altitude, soil, water availability are not uniformly distributed everywhere.The most important agricultural centers in Gilan are the plain areas or coastal areas located at an altitude of less than 100 meters above the sea level.Therefore, the geography of Gilan agriculture can be divided on the basis of the factor of elevation into the following areas and territories:A - Plain lands:These lands, which have mostly altitudes of less than 100 meters, are the most important agricultural activity center , due to auspiciousness climate conditions, alluvial soils and access to water resources, and are generally cultivated in such crops as rice, tea, tobacco, varieties of vegetable, seafood and citrus For this reason, the main focus of the population is on the plain ground.B - Subtropical lands: Subterranean soils are covered by forest in many parts of Gilan, and are dedicated only to the cultivation of tea or fruit trees.The cultivation of some special products of the plain lands along the valleys and on the terraces of the rivers, as far as the conditions allow, are common. The valley of the Sefidroud River from Rustamabad to Manjil and Loshan is dedicated to olive cultivation.C - Highlands: In these areas, cereals (wheat and barley), forage plants, and some medicinal plants such as Gol-Gav-Zaban are commonly used in these fields. In the Rudsar area and in different areas of Ishkevar, about 200 hectares of land are located under the cultivation of Gol-Gav-Zaban.Plain areas, as the most important center of agricultural activities in Gilan, can be distinguished from specific areas of special crops. Although the exact boundary between the territory of different crops is not a route, the following areas can be separated from each other in terms of crop geography in the plain section:Talesh area with dominant cultivation of rice, tobacco, fruit trees and cultivars
Rasht and Foomanat area with dominant cultivation of rice, tobacco, tea, seafi and vegetable, Tavastan
Lahijan area with predominant crops of tea, rice and peanuts
Astana Ashrafieh region with dominant rice and peanuts cultivation
Anzali area with predominant rice and Sefi
Langroud and Rudsar area with dominant cultures of rice, tea, seafi, citrus and hazelnut
Rudbar area with dominant olives, grains, forage and sparse hazelnuts

Wild life :Our province is one of the most important and valuable places in Iran. So that the aspects of aesthetics, ecology, economics, social, scientific, (educational) and recreational are so important that the value of the region in terms of the status of wildlife in the structure and functioning ecosystems in the dry country And the semi-dry Iran is completely justified. Hence, having these treasures of great importance to other parts of the country is a rare example. And the diversity of Gilan animals is so high that it is one of the most important areas for the distribution of Iranian mammals and birds.Mammals have a smaller population of species than other animal species, such as birds, But they are of great importance in terms of ecological characteristics and their role in the food chain and the creation of vital equilibrium in different ecosystems. Of the most important of these, wild boar (hog) can be the most prey to bite animals of the meat-eaters make . The brown bear is another animal in the region.The animal species in this province include:Mammals include: Maral (the largest deer of Iran), Shoka, Hogh, Jaw, Caspian, Leopard, Black Owl, Dogs, Seeds, Brown Bears, Wolves, Jackals, Wild Sheep ...- Birds include: Wild ducks, Quails, Varieties of Swallows, Pelicans, Types of Hawks, Heroes, Chutka, Flamingo, Quebec, Heddah, Wild Goose, Red Breasts, Eagles and ...- Guilan fishes , Elephant fish, Ozon-brown, Kilka, Caspian Sea salmon, Swift, Dwarf, Whitefish, Carp, Black Gypsy ...- Amphibians like a frog  

protected areas :Guilan province is one of the most beautiful regions in Iran, due to its environmental characteristics, which contains rare species of plants and wildlife. Protected areas of Guilan province include the cove's wildlife sanctuary in the Some-e Sara, the Sarkhankul Wetland in Bandar Anzali, the Naval Conservation Area in Talesh, the Sustainable Wetland in Astara,. Protected area of Sarkhankul wetland in Bandar Anzali, Nav Asalem in Talesh, Salt Lake Wetland Area in Astara, Alanan Protected Area in Talesh, Protected Area (Black Lagoon) in Bandar Anzali, Lisar Protected Area in Talesh, Landwil Protected Area in Astara and Protected Area (International Lagoon) Amir Kalayeh in Lahijan, Some of them are mentioned in Guilan province.Siah-Roud Protected Area: This area is located 35 km northeast of Rudbar city and has been protected since January 13, 1978. The area of this region is 28,289 hectares, of which about 5-6 thousand hectares are semi-dense forests and the rest of the agricultural lands and forest trees are scattered.Many villages are scattered within the boundaries of this area and the asphalt road of Totokaban passes through the middle of it and the Dorfak peak is located in its northern area. The area has natural and beautiful landscapes, and the most important herbs are beech, hornbeam, oak, maple, linden, evangelical, yew, khorrimedi, walnut, wild cherry and hawthorn.A large part of this habitat is composed of pasture lands and agriculture, and in the southern part of the rangeland area of the habitat area is the national natural effect of Sussan Chelcheragh. This plant has been registered as a national heritage. Among the most important animal species in this area are Maral, Shoka, Panther, Bear, Hog, Forest Cat, Jackal, Shishi, Mustard and birds such as Quebec, Abia, Woodpeckers, Forest Eagles, Dahlia and Mari.

Lundwill Wildlife Refuge: Located between Lundwill and the central part of the Astara city, it leads south to Lundwill, north to the town of Astara, to the east to the Caspian Sea, and to the west to the Astara-Lundwill Road.The area here is more than 1074 hectares. This area was declared as a protected area in 1352 and in its resolution No. 63 dated August 21, 1354, the Supreme Environmental Council joined the collection of areas under the management of the environmental organization. The average height of this area is 20 meters below the free surface. This area is a unique example of the remnant of Heri Kani plain forests and about one third of it is composed of ponds, waterfalls and wetlands. Among the most important herbaceous species, we can mention straw, lavi, wild pomegranate, alder alder, gazelle, lagra, lily, raspberry and others.The sanctuary includes diverse aquatic and drought habitats for anchovies, and 125 species of animals have been identified in this region, the most important of which are yellow deer, Maral Iran, brown bear, ordinary fox, boar, blue squid, gravure, Caspian Sea jaw Jackal, Black Cockroach, Perry Shahrokh, Strong Cry, Cute Gypsy, Ducks, Heron, Gilanshah, Felosh, Small and Big Bangalon, Eagle, Kakai, Marine Swallow, Abchilly, Heron, Saree, Pheasant and Drain.Lysar Protected Area: This area is located north of Talesh and features a coastal, plain and mountainous landscape. The area of this region is 31,142 hectares and has been protected since 1976.Among the vegetation index species of the region are lilac, rye, hornbeam, pellet, maple, lagra, alder, grizzly, spruce, wild pomegranate shoots, forest tomatoes, raspberries, lilacs, common grass species, clover, nettle, straw , Louis and .... The forests of this area, which are Hircani broadleaved forests, include a wide range of animals including Maral, Shoka, Bear, Panther, Wild Cats, Lynx, Total Goat, Rams, Ewe, Wolf, Fox, Quebec, Quebec Dare And a variety of hunting birds.The word Lisar means "Lee tree" (elm). Lee is a tree found in Iran's forests and used in carpentry.

plant species : The reason for the rich vegetation of Guilan is its climatic privilege. The forest, as the best form of vegetation, is a symbol of common water, air and soil. The Gilan province is rich in divine gift, although unreasonable exploitation of them has caused damage to the distant past and has reduced the extent of it, however, more than one-third of the province's area The forest is covered. In general, the gilan forests can be divided into two sections: plain and mountainous. The favorable climatic conditions of the Guilan province, one of the most rainy regions of Iran, as well as the high topographic conditions of the coastal plains and mountainous plains have made this land a rich vegetation.Most of the plain areas of Gilan are covered with grasses such as grass or perennials, including grasslands, large fields of rice and tobacco and other crops, and between the middle and middle mountain ranges, and its modest mountainous forests are densely enclosed with numerous herbaceous species. Covered and intermediate mountain ranges and middle mountains are enclosed by rich and densely populated forests with numerous herbaceous species. Some of the high altitudes of the province, which are many months of the year under the snow cover, have a special vegetation and are mostly monolithic and sometimes low-growing species that grow in short period of time. Referring to Iran's botanical books, we find that there are about 1000 plant species in Guilan province, some of which cover beautiful forests, a group of weeds, some with beautiful flowers, and many of them have medicinal uses. , Nutrition, Industrial, Forage and Local English.

Demographic features :The history of Gilan, based on some archaeological and archaeological explorations, dates back to the period before the last glaciation (between 50 and 150 thousand years ago). According to the researchers, the Gilan province before the arrival of the Aryans was the habitat of different ethnic groups, which today, due to the natural, historical and political factors and migrations, little effect is observed from some of these ancient tribes. The relatives who lived in Gilan province in the past are Gil, Dilam, Kados, Medea, Caspian and Caribbean. According to Diakonov, a Russian scientist, nearly 3000 years ago, the vast land of Caspian (Land of Cadiz) and Gilan (land of Giles) was located in the north of Median. The Gills gradually became one of a kind with the Cadets. In this case, the two tribes of Gil and Deylam were the most influential in this area. From the very beginning, the rulers of this people enjoyed complete freedom and never surrendered to foreigners and other rulers, and even in Median’s time they were completely independent. They united with Cyrus the Achaemenid in the sixth century BC and overthrew the Median government. Currently, the tribes that live in the province of Gilan include the Taleshian, Kurds, Turks, Armenians and Mazandaran.

History and culture :
The history of Gilan is unclear until six centuries BC, until Greek historians have clarified the corners of Iranian history, and can only be clarified by relying on some archaeological excavations. The works obtained from the lands of the southern shores of the Caspian Sea belonged to the period prior to the last frost (between 50 and 150 thousand years ago).The history of civilization in Gilan dates back to several thousand years BC. During that period, the Kasi used to migrate to other areas for better land. At the same time, a group of immigrants, including the Aryans, moved to the area because of climate changing and increasing polar cold. As a result of the mixing of the settlers and indigenous peoples of the region, several new tribes were formed, including the Gil and Deylam of the vast majority Have had. In the sixth century BC, the Gilani settled with Achaemenid Cyrus and overthrew Madad's rule. When the Achaemenid dynasty was overthrown, the country occupied by Alexander and then the Slovaks. At the time of the Selukians, the local rulers of Gilan governed with complete independence. Guilan has lost some degree of independence. At the time of Abbasid caliphate, , the Alevis lived in the mountains of Dehlam and tried to cling to the Abbasid caliphs' access to other parts of Iran. That was how the Dilemians and Alawites were created. About 290 AH, the people of Gilan and Deylam came to the Shiite religion. From the same period in the history of Iran, there were dynasties originating from Gilani and Deylami. One of the most important ones was Al Boyah. In the eighth century AH Mongol succeeded temporarily to win the land.The Gilan’s people played an important role in the advent of the Safavid dynasty, but during the reign of Shah Abbas, Gilan lost its independence.In 1071 AH, a number of Russian Germans invaded Gilan and plundered. Nader shah paid attention to Gilan because of his interest.Gilaks also had three major conquerors in the victory of the Constitutional Revolution, and in the year 1287 AH, after two days of fighting against the Kazakhs, Muhammad Ali Shah, they conquered Tehran. The role of the people of Gilan in the constitutional movement and Mirza Kuchak Khanjangli's movement are brilliant examples of the history of this area.Guilan province is also one of the special areas of Iran that has brought a collection of ancient and ancient traditions. The language of the people of Gilan is also influenced by ethnic diversity, dialects, and most notably of them are Gilaki, Taleshi and Deylmi.Language and dialect
According to ethnic diversity in Gilan province, the language and dialects are also different in this region, but the dominant dialect is Gilaki, Taleshi and Deylami. Gilaki is an Iranian language and one of the branches of Pahlavi language, which is actually considered as the maternal language of the people of Guilan.The gilaki itself is divided into several branches that are distinct from each other in the eastern and western parts of the province.In the east of the province, the dialect is called “ BiePish “ and in the west of the province , the dialect is called “ Bie Pas “ . The dialect "Beyond Posh" is common in Rasht, Bandar Anzali, Lashkh Nasha, Som-e- Sara and Koossefahan, and the dialect is still in Lahijan, Langrood and Rudsar.In the west and northwest of the province, especially on the Iranian-Azerbaijani border, such as Masal, Asalem, Shanderman, Talesh and Dolab, people speak Taleshi.This language is one of the northern languages of Iran, which in the past (about the 10th century AH) has been popular in Azerbaijan and has since been changed by one of the dialects of the Turkish language.
 Among the ethnic Azeri Turks resident in this province, the Azeri Turkish language is commonplace. They live in cities such as Talesh, Astara, Rasht, Rezvanshahr and Bandar Anzali, and they speak Azeri.Among the other important languages of Gilan province, is the language of Deilmi, which is fundamentally different from Gilaki. Galeshi is the common dialect of the mountainous people, The dialect of the people of Rudbar is Taleshi and Kermanji is the accent of Amarului. In Rudbar district, Tati and Kurd tribes live in Tati and Kurdish languages. In the cities of Rasht and Bandar Anzali, a minority of Armenians reside in Armenian. In Rudbar district, Tati and Kurd tribes live and they speak Tati and Kurdis . In the cities of Rasht and Bandar Anzali, a minority of Armenians live who speak Armenian.Along with these languages,people of this province are familiar with Persian as the official language of the country.

Ethnic groups :This province has a distinct ethnic identity. Its main ethnic groups belong to the northwest branch of the Iranian language group. Most of them are gilak, which lives in the central plain, eastern coastal areas and southwestern heights. Based on the dialectic differences and socio-cultural characteristics, the gilcas are divided into three categories: Gilak Rashti and Lahijani, who live in the west and east of the plain, show little difference, but Gilak Galishi or Dailami in the southern mountains Western have a different language and a different cultivation and livestock farming with gilak plain and efforts that have drawn their region from the foothills to the Alborz. Tati dialect is spoken around Rudbar. Recently, a few newcomers were found in the province: Buffalo breeders were spread in the plain, the Kurdish Amarloo tribe name it to the eastern part of Amarlou (Gilan) or Rudbar, Turkish merchants and fishermen on the coast from Astara to Anzali and the Persian office staff Governmental . Consequently, multilingualism is the rule throughout the province.Each group resident in the province is characterized by one or more specific productive activities. Ethnic names also refer to professional specialty in addition to territorial, linguistic and cultural roots. GileMard (Gilani man) refers to plain farmers who speak Gilaki, while Galesh, a mountainous producer in the east of the province, uses a dialect called Golshawi. The ethnic name generally combines cultural and professional dimensions. Each group resident in the province is characterized by one or more specific productive activities. Ethnic names also refer to professional specialty in addition to territorial, linguistic and cultural roots. Male Guilan (Gilani man) refers to plain farmers who speak Gilaki, while Galesh, a mountainous producer in the east of the province, uses a dialect called Golshawi. The ethnic name generally combines cultural and professional dimensions.For many Gilcans, especially the townspeople of the center and the west, an attempt is a dairy farmer, though Talesh uses Galesh as a farmer too in the northern part of the province.Various communities that coexist in the region do not have the same access to most indigenous sources. For this reason, collective names, in addition to identity, point to relative success in the economic hierarchy. The main regional sources (rice and silk in the past) are Gilak tribesmen, and sometime Talesh. Guilan also controls major business and management departments. Alborz wetland populations (Golsha and more Talshan) are experts in cattle and sheep farming, and in the area of the region have a similar position, and have a lower position than their neighbors. Sunni religion, as part of the population in the regions of Islam and Talesh Dulab, contrasts with the majority of the Shiite population, has led to the marginalization of Talashan.

women's clothing :
Scarves, (Lechak), Shirts or Jame, Vests, Satin, Satchels, Skirts, Shilti, Pants and Tents are one of the main sections of Gilan women's clothing. Each piece of Gilani woman’s dress has its own special application, changing the condition, the need for it has been eliminated and has been removed a little.Al-Jagba: This cover is made of velvet or tattoo fabric and it’s the clothing of women in the eastern mountains and Qasim Abad.Shlite or Kootah Toman (tannin): This dress is a short skirt called "Gerde Toman". In the center and east of Gilan, there is a long skirt which is called Deraz Toman (Tonban), and in the west of Gilan it is named "Chalar".The tent of the waist: the tent of the waist is a covering that Gilani ladies put on the waist, and the ladies living in the plain called it "Kamardabad". Ladies tied around the waist when working in agriculture, such as green tea picking, weeding, and picking citrus fruits in cold weather, when they are forced to work for hours in curvature, because closing them, in addition to keeping them warm, prevent back pain. It is also used to close the child to the back when working.Women tuck the tent around their waist, when they are working in farms in cold wather. Because tucking it in addition to keeping them warm, prevents back pain. It is also used to fasten the child back while they’re working.The local costumes of Gilan women can be divided into three parts east and west. Women's clothing in the east of Gilan is known as "Qasem Abadi", Western clothing is known as "Taleshi" and women's clothing in center of Guilan, is known as "Rosukhi”. The "Rosukhi" dress is seen more in the city of Masouleh, a relic of the Qajar period, and has spread from cities such as Zanjan to Gilan. Different fabrics are used in women's dresses in East and West of Gilan. In women's clothes in western Guilan, fabrics have colorful flowers, while women's clothing in the eastern part of Gilan is plain and colorful. The closer we get to the foothills of Gilan, the type of clothes are thicker, for example, the residents of Deylaman use velvet fabric more,and their clothes are made of silk. Gilan women's clothing has a special beauty. Taleesh dresses in the overview and in the westernmost area of effort include a single white scarf, vest, sometimes decorated with coarse coins, a long shirt to ankle and a skirt that is called in Farsi “Shlar”, and they wear it all together. The length of dresses and Shilty highlights the various parts of the western Guilan, for example, in the westernmost area of the Hashper tall dresses and in Astara the short- dress are to the top of the knee.Women's clothing in the east of Gilan and Ghasemabad area has a certain cultural characteristic. Ghasem Abadi women's clothing is famous for its rich color variation and high attractiveness, so that signs of this dress are seen elsewhere in the eastern Gilan plain. This dress includes a lowercase scarf called "Mandel" which is used instead of a hat and decorated with many coins in the forehead. Of course, this hat is not just for Ghasem Abad. Its vest is like other vests, except that it is decorated with coins. Ghasem Abadi shirt has a special difference with shirts in different parts of Guilan.Deylaman dresses are also very beautiful. The features of this outfit include the use of basic stitching, which simplifies the surface of the garment with plain yarns and hand-stitched patterns, flower designs, moon and stars used in Iranian architecture. There are some designs that come with this zigzag design. Also in Deylaman, a kind of women skirt is sewn with velvet cloth with historical signs. Deylaman’s dress is covered with coins.In general, Gilani women's uniforms are one of the best local costumes in Iran due to the variety of colors and types of clothing.

Men's clothing :
Men's hats (hat): Men sew hats from skins, shawls and cloths in different shapes and wear them. Gilani men's hats are the hats which are used in villages and they are very different in different parts of the province.The hats of western Guilan men are: a hat scarf woolen fabric that is woven in black and tinted colors and used in the winter. The Chalgizi hat is used in the Hashper Mountains. The four-headed hat, which is made of white fabric and used in the summer, and a Araghchin hat, with a lace-shaped cap and white, is used in the summer and during sleep. The men's hat of Gilan is called “Namat” hat that is made of felt and is in the shape of a long, short, or four-oval egg. They put this mustard hat on groom’s head in the wedding day. The shepherds of the eastern part of Guilan use a hat called “Poostin”. Men use a wicker hat when they are fishing and farming in farm.Men's Tunic: Men wear different shirts in Guilan province at different times. Some of them are white or blue white shirt with a 3 cm collar and opens from the front. This shirt has a sleeve with a wrist. Another type of shirt is used by shepherds, which is called the left collar in the east of Gilan. Keshpirhan is also a kind of cloth which worn in the winter and autumn. During the wedding, grooms wear a shirt that is white, but it is red in the village of Qasem with a red scarf.The shepherds wear a long robe called “Bashlagh”, which water does not pass through and can be obtained by cutting woven fabrics (wool scarves). They use a shorter cover called "Collagger" during the day and another cloth called "Shula" in the night, both of them are made with muffler.Vest: The vest, which is called “Jalaghte” or “Jalaghde”, is used for fall and winter seasons.They are made of thicker fabrics for winter and thinner for the summer.Trousers: In western Guilan, men's trousers, called 'Chalar', have tight slippers and are often black, milky and peppered, and are made of wool. Men in the east of Gilan also wear trousers whose slippers for old men have a simple tube and a button for young people which their color is dark. In the past, in Ghasem Abad and Rudbar, too, there were men's trousers name “Ghadak”, a cotton thread and black or blue.In the west and east of Gilan, the tight pantyhose called Tang tooman was commonly used by men when they were going to the forest or farm.Fishermen use a suit called "Fuku" when fishing. This coarse cover (shoes, pants and shirts) is made up of heavy rubber tires.Waist scarf : Men from the Gilan province scratched a scarf on their pants and waist and it is called "Kamardabad". The width of this scarf is 33-30 cm and its length is 2-3 m and it is dark brown or white.Coat: Men in Talesh used a Coat, called “Chukha”, or “Shake”. The shape of this jacket is usually with a collar. Men in the east of Gilan and plain areas, made coats from “Pushme Chukha”.“Papoosh”: “Choomoosh” is a kind of simple leather footwear that was completely native and most of the inhabitants of the mountainous regions of Gilan used it, but today they have lost their application.The advantages of this pixel are its lightness and integrity. There are two types of it.One type that is specially for hunting is known as the "Chomush hunt," and comes with a leather strap. The other type does not have leather straps. In talesh two types of Chomush were swen. The high quality of it was called "Khutni" and its high quality, tanned from tanned leather, was called "Mazandar".As time went by, the sewing and the use of chamomile was not common, another type made of rubber was replaced named “Chamoush Resin”. “Saghari” is a kind of casual leather shoes clerics wear it. “Orsi” is also a backdrop of leather shoes. Chorou is also a simple, back-stitched tailor-made shoe from the skin of an donckey, horse or buff. There is a woolen knitted jacket called “Give” which is used in the summer. Putin Galosh is a kind of shoe that is short, leathery and upholstered. Rural men use plastic boots when they are working in fields or forests. The “Chokotor” or “Chikitor” is the cover used when they were moving over the snow, which was squashed. “Katale” (slippers) is a kind of shabby wood that has been made of wood and there is two types of it. One kind had a thick belt with a big toe was in it. It was used for short walks and in public baths.

Gilan Handicrafts :
The special geographic conditions of Gilan, wet weather, forest mountains and beautiful and colorful landscapes on the one hand, and the long history of the people of this land in the arts and industry, on the other hand, have caused that Guilan have industries and hands Beautiful, diverse, diverse, and contentful designs from the ancient times to this day. The beginning of Gilan handicrafts can not be determined; most likely, the first handmade by the Gillanians, like the inhabitants of other parts were from the rock and animal sculptures, and perhaps were produced of animal skins and wool. According to the works published in various parts of Gilan, it can be claimed that in 2,000 to 3,000 BC, the Gilani were not only acquainted with handicrafts, but they were able to solve the perfection in this field. In any case, important indicators of Guilan handicrafts include:Weaving,pearl weaving, bamboo weaving, pottery, felted wool, silk, woolen and knitted handcrafts, weaving carpets, chopsticks, wickerwork, embroidered pumpkin, embroidered crochet, glazing, enamel (house enamel), carpet And Jajim.Museums :
Currently, under the auspices of the Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, there are nine museums in Gilan. The Rasht Museum, formerly the house of Mirza Hussein Khan Kasmaei, was founded in 1349. The Gilan Rural Heritage Museum is located at Saravan Forest Park, 18 km from Rasht-Tehran. The museum's goal is not to transfer rural buildings, but to preserve indigenous culture, technology and insecurity in the villages of Gilan. In this collection, in addition to the rural architecture of different regions of the province, other cultural elements related to life, work, food, clothing, etc. will also be presented. Kashif al-Saltanah's tomb in Lahijan, with its traditional and specialties related to tea, and documents related to the activities of the tea father of Iran, is active as the Museum of Iranian Tea History. Anzali Military Museum, Abzayan Museum are among other museums in Guilan.Food preservation practices :
In Gilan, food was stored at least for six months from the year, namely autumn and winter. The people produced many of the materials they needed: For example, they were “Khamas” from grapes and figs; they ate from tomatoes, sour cherries, figs and oranges and oranges and other citrus fruits; they ate tomatoes (Pamadur), green tomatoes (aloe vera and heli), and sour and orange pomegranate. ; A Gurra, the water of Anarro took the orange juice; and they obtained the vinegar and its raisins. They cook jams from cherry,and oranges. They cook pastes from tomato,cherry plum and... . They produced vinegar from apples and raisin. It is apparent that it was not possible to make these at any time of the year. The remoteness of the market, the difficulty of transport, the rainy weather and the high-lighted paths made people to buy foods before the hard days of the year and store them at home.One of the things which is used for keeping food is the use of goat or sheepskin, sweating the goat or sheep's skin and pollinating the cuts of the hands, feet, and denominator, and fluttering through the throat in that cheese, flour And oil they hold and hold. This is a leather bag which is called “Hobom” in Langrood and Deylaman and “Hopomy” in Lahijan.Khamaneh; a leather bag of a sheep’s skin which they put rice, beans and.... . In another form they keep cheese and salt (chapters). It is also called “Poost” or “Khik”.Ghorme : People who live in the mountains,they fry meat and the fat of sheep together.and then they pour it in a jar and they use it as a stew in winter.To dry the bean, they pour a little pomegranate leaves with the bean in the boil, stir several times, empty the water and make the bean in the sun to dry for winter use. The reason of pouring the pomegranate leaves is to avoid flying pests while drying.They soak Mazandaran’s beans in water and eat with Caviar,or they boil it and serve it in the afternoon.They kept some foods in the air. They kept dishes , a special dish for yogurt (Gamaj) ,  smoked herring  salty fish , watermelon , melon and pumpkin in something like basket and they hang it in housesTo keep rice and fish they smoked it and they salted fish and Caviar in salt and madder.Cooking in Gilan : Until the prevalence of ready-made foods, the people of Gilan, in the context of their food cultures that survived from generations, observed the occasion; seasonal facilities, body requirements (in terms of work, pregnancy, etc) , age, ritual and occasions associated with health (Gile experience). In all these occasions, rice was the main ingredient of Gilan’s food. Its flour was used for bread (Kashta,Khalfe,Lakoo), Halvah (Dankooh), sweetmeats (kaka) and some soups. Rice, Nocera and de Hen Chilka were some of the rituals. Rice was cooked in the past in the form of “Kate” (“Kate” is the way of cooking rice which they just boiled it) and Chelo was for parties and celebrations. Add dumplings and other things to Ploo from the latest Gilan cooking traditions. Adding bean or other things to rice is one of the latest cookery traditions in Guilan.Vegetables are the ingredients of many foods. Guilan’s people eat garlic leaves, garlic , garlic pickle a lot. Native Gilan Cooking features are the use of aromatic local herbs; various types of mint, such as “Bine” , “Chuchagh” etc., garlic and garlic leaves. sour taste, is a tasting of many Gilani foods. Eggs are the important food in Guilan.Gilan’s people use poultry and their eggs, migratory ducks and native birds, fish, beef and sheep a lot.Cooking in Gilan needs a long time and it is complex. Washing ingredients is the first phase of work that takes a lot of time, grinding vegetables and cereals is another part of the job. Most of the foods are made of several materials, which some of them must be cooked separately. For cooking food there are two methods, in the water and on a gentle flame,which are used for rice,meat,chicken. In most recipes, these two types of cooking methods apply together.The Gilans do not have a culture of cookery in the oven (except for one; Mahi fibich in the bakery), but they are focused on roast, boiled and moistened.